ICE v2 by area


Life cycle methodology, materials. Calculates embodied energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) and CO2e emissions based on the quantity of materials used (by area). Scenarios include paint, carpet, photovoltaic cells and roads. Mixed geographical scopes.


This methodology represents embodied energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) and CO2e emissions associated with the use of various materials as specified on the basis of area quantities. The data and calculation methodology is sourced from the Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), version 2.0 life cycle dataset, produced in conjunction with the University of Bath.

The methodology

Emissions model

The methodology is based on factors which describe the quantities of energy and CO2 which are 'embodied' within unit quantities of various materials. By multiplying a quantity of material - in this case, an area quantity - by these factors, an estimate of the embodied energy and emissions associated with that quantity can be calculated.

Model data

Embodied energy and emissions vary between types of material because of each material's differing raw material and manufacturing requirements. This methodology represents 31 different materials scenarios, each differentiated by their material name (e.g. paint, carpet, road) and type and subtype descriptors (e.g. single coat, hot asphalt, pile weight 300 g/m2).

Each specific type of material is represented by up to three data values, representing:

  • embodied energy per unit area (MJ/m2)
  • embodied CO2 per unit area (kg/m2)
  • embodied CO2e per unit area (kg/m2)
For some materials, unit CO2e emissions are not explicitly defined.

In addition, each material is described by a life cycle analysis boundary, indicating the stages in the material life cycle which are represented by the energy and CO2 factors, and in most cases author notes on the sourcing of the data.

Activity data required

Embodied energy and emissions are directly proportionate to the quantity of material used (i.e. area), which therefore must be available in order to calculate.

Calculation and results

Embodied energy and emissions are calculated by multiplying the specified quantity of material used by the available factors. Up to three values are returned representing the embodied energy, and CO2 or CO2e emissions attributable to the specified quantity.

Related methodologies

Several other methodologies sourced from the ICE database are available. While this methodology deals with area-based material quantities, material life cycle emissions can also be calculated on the basis of mass. The mass-based methodology represents the bulk of the ICE database.

In addition, there exist several methodologies which provide data and calculations specific to particular types of materials, for example concrete, timber (including biogenic CO2 emissions) and windows.

Details of the sources of data for the ICE database are also available.

LGPOU0R6BZOA Carpet, General
FKFZXR2Y6H1P Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 1100 g/m2
MW6SHDG1HU07 Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 300 g/m2
JFRIP05XMEWM Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 500 g/m2
VFAZ28PDRYAL Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 700 g/m2
PD462FF1M9RB Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 900 g/m2
N3ZOXJG1HMGQ Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 1100 g/m2
K4ER4UCOT3G0 Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 300 g/m2
SJO8D9FFO7WI Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 500 g/m2
5RM0ICZPHVMZ Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 700 g/m2
VK5W2HT8KHX7 Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 900 g/m2
ZZ5WEAJP0M0L Carpet, Polypropylene
96O8EKY5MKXP Carpet, Wool
CU842TG3QOT6 Paint, General, Double coat
7VF7P3Y5TQMZ Paint, General, Single coat
748HNS77J09O Paint, General, Triple coat
Y4N6BINBB7QK PV modules, Monocrystalline
ONTDLU62D5XL PV modules, Polycrystalline
9VUVVLKLI4D9 PV modules, Thin film
O8A3GX0LQCLC Road, Cold asphalt, All (40 yrs)
Area of material used
Name: ICE_v2_by_area
Full path: /embodied/ice/v2/area
Parent Category: ICE v2