ICE v2 by area

[edit / update model]
Life cycle methodology, materials. Calculates embodied energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) and CO2e emissions based on the quantity of materials used (by area). Scenarios include paint, carpet, photovoltaic cells and roads. Mixed geographical scopes.


This methodology represents embodied energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) and CO2e emissions associated with the use of various materials as specified on the basis of area quantities. The data and calculation methodology is sourced from the Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), version 2.0 life cycle dataset, produced in conjunction with the University of Bath.

The methodology

Emissions model

The methodology is based on factors which describe the quantities of energy and CO2 which are 'embodied' within unit quantities of various materials. By multiplying a quantity of material - in this case, an area quantity - by these factors, an estimate of the embodied energy and emissions associated with that quantity can be calculated.

Model data

Embodied energy and emissions vary between types of material because of each material's differing raw material and manufacturing requirements. This methodology represents 31 different materials scenarios, each differentiated by their material name (e.g. paint, carpet, road) and type and subtype descriptors (e.g. single coat, hot asphalt, pile weight 300 g/m2).

Each specific type of material is represented by up to three data values, representing:

  • embodied energy per unit area (MJ/m2)
  • embodied CO2 per unit area (kg/m2)
  • embodied CO2e per unit area (kg/m2)
For some materials, unit CO2e emissions are not explicitly defined.

In addition, each material is described by a life cycle analysis boundary, indicating the stages in the material life cycle which are represented by the energy and CO2 factors, and in most cases author notes on the sourcing of the data.

Activity data required

Embodied energy and emissions are directly proportionate to the quantity of material used (i.e. area), which therefore must be available in order to calculate.

Calculation and results

Embodied energy and emissions are calculated by multiplying the specified quantity of material used by the available factors. Up to three values are returned representing the embodied energy, and CO2 or CO2e emissions attributable to the specified quantity.

Related methodologies

Several other methodologies sourced from the ICE database are available. While this methodology deals with area-based material quantities, material life cycle emissions can also be calculated on the basis of mass. The mass-based methodology represents the bulk of the ICE database.

In addition, there exist several methodologies which provide data and calculations specific to particular types of materials, for example concrete, timber (including biogenic CO2 emissions) and windows.

Details of the sources of data for the ICE database are also available.

MV16KJNVZCOY Carpet, General
OREYIAQWD3CS Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 1100 g/m2
CVQ1YNU7E0AW Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 300 g/m2
BP21DPE3VXYG Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 500 g/m2
XCBS6YI0K9MS Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 700 g/m2
VSRM5NHYB4GO Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide) tiles, Pile weight 900 g/m2
6P5OMGZ3D1EL Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 1100 g/m2
OS0DW3DK0QKG Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 300 g/m2
72U90L7JLNF7 Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 500 g/m2
NTM5BYFU285K Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 700 g/m2
2IZ36BRQBPDM Carpet, Nylon (Polyamide), Pile weight 900 g/m2
8F7N380ET830 Carpet, Polypropylene
YM4JD8EU13H3 Carpet, Wool
3W1UFVSSKKJM Paint, General, Double coat
9AKM6NDCQ7YL Paint, General, Single coat
YZJKV8V9YXT5 Paint, General, Triple coat
KM7N4BGDNQKP PV modules, Monocrystalline
F38ZZALEODWF PV modules, Polycrystalline
H7ZC1TT4DLDH PV modules, Thin film
JA7KNV5N6MW3 Road, Cold asphalt, All (40 yrs)
Area of material used